Descriptions of Amlwch


Amlwch 1780

A true note and terier of all the glebes , lands, Meadows, Gardens, House, Stock, Implements, Tenements, Tithes and rights belonging to the Parish and Parish church of Amlwch, in the county of Anglesey, and Diocese of Bangor, taken, made, and renewed according to the old evidences and knowledge of the ancient inhabitants, by the appointments of the Right Reverend father in God, John, Lord Bishop of Bangor, on the Twenty Second Day of July in the year of our Lord, One thousand, seven hundred and eighty.

Imprimis , The Parish Church, an ancient building containing in length Twenty Yards, in Breadth in the body of the church, Fourteen yards, in the chancel, twelve yards. Within and belonging to which are, one communion table with a covering for the same decent blue cloth, also one linen cloth and a napkin, Two pewter dish, one silver chalice weighting about 1 oz. One reading desk, one pulpit with a velvet cushion and pulpit cloth, two surplices, one whereof being now. One large Welsh Bible and the last edition, two welsh common prayer books in folio, one large English Bible, one large English common prayer book, both the gift of Sir Nicholas Bayley Bart 1772. One English common prayer book in octavia.

There are five register books of parchment, the first begins in 1633 and ends 1668 imperfect. The second begins in 1694 and ends in 1717, imperfect. The third begins in 1717 and ends in 1731 complete. The forth begins in 1732 and ends in 1757. The fifth begins in 1748 and ends in 1779. There is another register Book of Parchment beginning July 19th 1779 containing 160 pages and well-bound in ruff Calf. One register book to enter marriages as directed by the late Act of parliament. One book for Parish accounts, Three chests, the first with one lock and second two locks, the third with three locks, the keys of the last are kept by the Minister and Church Wardens. One font of stone, one bell, two biers, two black hearse cloths, one whereof was made in the year 1778. Two ladders, two spades, one shovel and one pick. The Churchyard measures about … with a good stone wall around it and two ash trees growing in the same.

Mrs Eleanor Kynier left Three hundred and Eleven pounds to endow two schools, two thirds of the interest to instruct Boys and one third to instruct Girls, all of the parish of Amlwch. Owen Rowlands left the sum of three pounds to the use of the Poor of the said parish. David Llwyd of Twrcelyn Esqr, left to the poor of the said Parish ten pounds. John Jones left to the poor of the said parish Five pounds.  William ap William Thomas left to the poor of the said Parish five pounds. Owen Hughes left to the poor of the said parish Eight pounds. Edward Owen left to the poor of the said parish Twenty pounds. William Sion left to the poor of the said parish the sum of twenty pounds.

Them belonging to the said Church:-

Tenements commonly called and know by the name Plas yn Amlwch, bordering on the North and East sides upon the sea, on the west side upon Garreg Fawr a tenement belonging to Mrs Margaret Lewis of Llys Dulas. On the south side upon Lord Bulkelelys and Mr William Petters land. On the South east side upon a tenement called Cae’r Pandy belonging to Mr Henry Prictchard of Madyn Dysw. The dwelling house ids slated, in length twelve yards, in breadth five yards, consisting below stairs of one kitchen, one pantry, one small parlour, one buttery and one small cellar. Above stairs, three bedrooms, with a garret over one of them, and one small closet, the Barn being thatched is twelve yards in length and five yards in breadth.   The outward kitchen joining upon the barn is slated and in length nine yards and breadth five yards. The cowhouse in cae’r beudy in length eleven yards and in breadth five yards. Another old dwelling house on the said called Ty vicar in length eight yards, in breadth three yards.

There are also two houses lately built upon a part of the said tenement called Graig Ddu, both thatched the first is eight yards in length in length, four yards two feet in breadth, the cowshed is in length five yard and one foot, in breadth the same as the house. The second is eight yards in length four yards and two feet breadth, the cow house is three yards and two feet in length, the same with the dwelling house in breadth.

There are also nine thatched houses lately built on a part of the said tenement called Rhos. No1 is six yards and a half in length, four and a half in breadth. No2 is seven yards and a half length and four yards in breadth. No3 is seven yards in length, four and a half yards in breadth, No 4 is seven yards and a half in length, four and a half in breadth. No5 is four yards in length and four yards and a half in breadth. No6 is seven yards and a half in length and four yards and a half in breadth. No7 is seven yards in breadth and a half in length and four yards and a half in breadth. No8 is seven yards in length and five yards in breadth. No8 is seven yards in length and five yards in breadth. No 9 is six yards and a half in length and four yards in breadth.

There are also a row of slated houses lately built upon a part of the said tenement called cae’r pandy, bordering upon the sea on the east side there off. In all seven, the first is seven yards in length, the second and third four yards and a half each in length. The others five yards and a half in length, their breadth five yards and 27 inches. There is also a thatched house joining the said house on the south end in length seven yards and breadth five yards.

There is a house built near the Northern corner of the said houses, slated ,now used for a smithy, in length seven yards, in breadth five yards. Another slated house on the top steps leading down to the harbour, in length eight yards in breadth five yards and a half.

In the north side of the harbour in the said cae’r pandy are two quays latterly erected, one crane, one lime kiln, with a slated house to keep the lime.

A tenement called and known by the name of Maes y Llwyn isaf bordering on the east upon Madyn Dusw, on the south upon the lands of Robert Jones,Miller, on the west opon Maes Llwyn Ucaf, and some part of the Lastra lands, North west upon Pen y bryn, on the North upon Tyddyn Ty Hir,  There are two old thatched houses on this tenament. The one is five yards in length and four yards in breadth. The other four yards in length and breadth. There are also lately built on the said tenement three thatched houses each six yards in length and four in breadth.

There are also seven quillets or parcels of land belonging to the said Rectory situated near Amlwch Church.

No1 A Quillet on the west side of a house belonging to William Lewis of Trysglwyn Esq in measure R=0, P=20

No2 A Quillet bordering on the afor said quillet on the west side, R=0 , P=25

No3  A Quillet joining upon the church yard wall on the south side. R=0, P=15

No4 A quillet called Llain Y ddeiol on the North side of the church, R=2, P=14

No5 A quillet called Llain tan y fonwent, bordering on the church yard on the east side. R=2, P=3

No6 A quillet called Llain y gwyddau, NE of the church, R=O, P=20

No7 meadows called Gwaun fair on the North side of the church, R=2, P=60

A house slated lately built upon the quillets no3 called Ty’n y llan, nine yards in length and six yards in breath.

A house thatched called Ty’n’ y Deiol upon the quillet no4, eight yards in length and five yards in breadth.

Another three houses lately built joining Ty’n y ddeiol, the first two nine yards in length and five yards in breadth each, the third five yards and a half in length and five yards in breadth. Another slated house built at the east side of the same quillet no4, fourteen yards in length and five yards in breadth.  Northward of which are four slated houses lately built in all twenty yards in length and five in breadth.

A thatched house built upon the quillet called Llain tan y fonwent, called Ty’ tan  y fonwent, seven yards in length and four yards and a half in breadth.

A slated house lately built upon the no6 quillet called Llain y gwyddau, eighteen yards in length and five yards and a half in breadth.

A new brick house on the meadow called Gwaun Fair, no7, ten yards in length and five yards and a half in breadth.

Tithes are paid in kind:- Corn the tenth sheaf, Hay the tenth Cock, wool the tenth fleece or pound. Lambs the tenth, the owner to choose the first. Where there is one lamb, one out of seven the owner to choose the first, there is two pence a lamb to be paid to the owner for every lamb short of the number ten. Under seven the owner pays two pence for every lamb. Kids one out of three and one out of sixty geese. Pigs one out of every litter.

Easter dues: - Every married couple pay sixpence, widowers and widows pay three pence each, out of which a third part is due to the Parish Clerk, bachelors and spinster pay two pence each, there is three half pence due for every cow and calf, excepting the first years calving, which is one penny and three half pence for every mare’s foal.

In testimony of the truth of before mentioned particulars, and of every one of them, we the ministers churchwardens, and principal inhabitants, have set our hands the day and year first within written.


A Topographical Dictionary of Wales
Author Samuel Lewis Published 1849

AMLWCH, a parliamentary borough, a seaport, and parish, in the hundred of Twrcelyn, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 20 miles (N. W.) from Beaumaris, and 266 (N. W. by W.) from London; containing 6217 inhabitants. This place, formerly an inconsiderable hamlet, inhabited only by fishermen, has, from the variety and abundance of the mineral treasures contained in the mountainous district of the parish, become a populous and flourishing town. It derived its name from its situation on a sandy beach, and its importance from the discovery of the copper-mines in its vicinity, aided by a small cove between the rocks on the coast, which afforded a facility of shipping the produce, and has been subsequently improved into a safe and commodious harbour, secured by a breakwater. The high table-land of Trysclwyn, otherwise called Parys mountain, rises at a short distance from the town into enormous rugged masses of coarse aluminous shale and whitish quartz, naturally assuming a very rude and striking appearance; while the rugged grandeur of its exterior is further heightened by the mining operations to which it has been subjected. This mountain is stated to have derived its latter name from Robert Paris or Parys, the younger, who is named as one of the commissioners on an inquisition, in the reign of Henry IV., to fine the Anglesey insurgents in the cause of Owain Glyndwr. From the discovery of certain works formed by the ancient process of mining, previously to the invention of gunpowder, it is evident that copper-ore has been worked here at a very early period; and as the ancient Britons were known to import all their brass utensils, it is equally probable that that period was during the occupation of their country by the Romans. Traces of the ancient mode of operations, by heating the rock to an intense degree, and pouring water on the surface, in order to make it split, are discernible in several places; and at Llanvaethlu, a few miles from this place, a cake of copper was found, weighing fifty pounds, and bearing a mark resembling the Roman letter L; from which circumstance it is more than probable that that people had smelting-works in the neighbourhood.

But the existence of the immense treasures which from that time had lain concealed or neglected was not thought of till the year 1762, when Mr. Alexander Frazier, a native of Scotland, visiting Anglesey in search of mines, and being struck with the promising appearance of the Parys mountain, induced Sir Nicholas Bayley, the proprietor, to make some experiments, and on sinking shafts in the mountain, copper-ore was discovered. Before a sufficient quantity of it, however, could be obtained to defray the expenses of the work, the mine was inundated with water, and the operations were consequently suspended. About two years after, Messrs. Roe and Co., of Macclesfield, applying to Sir Nicholas Bayley for a lease of the mine of Penrhyn dû, in the county of Carnarvon, obtained it only upon condition of their taking also a lease of part of the Parys mountain, called Mona mine, and carrying on a level for the purpose of continuing the works which had been previously abandoned. With this condition they reluctantly complied, and upon making a fair trial, ore was discovered; but the expense of procuring it far exceeding the profits, the adventurers, after carrying on their works at a great loss for some time, determined to discontinue operations. Their agent, however, previously to abandoning an enterprise upon which so much labour had been bestowed, and so much money expended, resolved upon making another and final effort. For this purpose he divided his men into several small companies, and having observed, near that part of the mountain which is called the Golden Venture, a spring of water which, from its appearance, he conceived must issue from a mineral bed, he ordered his men to sink shafts in several places, within 700 or 800 yards of the spot, and in less than two days they discovered, at the depth only of seven feet from the surface, that vast body of mineral ore which has been subsequently worked with so much advantage to the proprietors. This important discovery was made on the 2nd of March, 1768, and the anniversary of that day was for many years celebrated as a festival by the miners of the district, and St. Chad considered their patron saint.

In 1775, the Rev. Edward Hughes, in right of his wife, who was joint proprietor with Sir Nicholas Bayley of another part of Parys mountain, now called Parys mine, commenced a series of operations, and discovered a still larger body of mineral ore, the successful working of which laid the foundation of the immense wealth of his son, the present Lord Dinorben. The Parys mine soon after its discovery became the joint property of the Earl of Uxbridge and the Rev. Mr. Hughes, and the management was committed to Mr. Thomas Williams, a native of Anglesey, who subsequently held on lease a part of Sir Nicholas Bayley's moiety, and by his unremitting labours realized a large fortune. Under the superintendence of Mr. Williams, the works began to flourish, and in the course of a few years, several subordinate companies of melters, refiners, and manufacturers were formed at Holywell, Swansea, Ravenhead, Birmingham, Marlow, and Wraysbury; and warehouses for the sale of the copper were opened at London, Liverpool, and Bristol. These various establishments, all under the direction of Mr. Williams, formed collectively a business of almost unexampled magnitude, involving a fluctuating property of at least one million sterling, and in which numerous opulent individuals had a direct interest, and several thousand persons obtained employment. Towards the close of the last century, the immense produce of the Parys mountain exceeded the aggregate produce of all the other copper-mines in the kingdom, and had such an effect upon the market, that, for some years, a severe competition existed between the Anglesey and Cornish companies, which at length ended in a coalition, advantageous to themselves, but injurious to those manufacturers to whom the use of copper was essential. The inhabitants of Birmingham, Liverpool, Wolverhampton, and other towns interested in the trade, having made an unsuccessful application to parliament, for relief against this monopoly, an association of spirited individuals, called the "Birmingham Copper-Mining Company," purchased mines in Cornwall, and, erecting smeltinghouses in the neighbourhood of Swansea, were enabled to supply the manufacturers at a more moderate price, and thus completely destroyed the effect of the coalition. The mines in the parish continued to flourish until 1800, but from that year to 1811, the Mona mines were worked at considerable loss: to use a phrase of Mr. Williams's, "the mines were honey-combed." Owing to the poverty of the miners and the want of employment, arising from the depression of the trade, the town was brought to a state of great distress; from which, however, it happily recovered upon a new company taking a lease of Mona mine, in 1811, and by the advancement of a large capital, and the skilful management of the agents who superintended it.

The town having continued prosperous and flourishing, is now of considerable size; it is provided with excellent water from various springs in the neighbourhood. The body of copper-ore contained in the mountain is of unknown extent: and, instead of the usual process of mining, it was at one time quarried out in some parts in solid masses, which were afterwards broken into small pieces, previously to its undergoing the necessary process of separating the ore from the matrix of stone in which it is embedded. The Parys and the Mona mines are both on the same vein, which in many instances exceeded one hundred yards in breadth, descending to a great depth; and have been worked to a very considerable extent in a direct line, with numerous ramifications in various directions, from which, including open cast excavations and subterraneous workings, besides shafts, levels, &c., many hundred thousand cubic yards of earth and ore have been removed. The principal veins contain ore in what the workmen term "bellies." Since 1811, the mines have been worked under cover by the sinking of shafts and driving of levels, as is usual in mines scientifically conducted, being the only mode that can be adopted to follow the veins in depth, one part of the Mona mine being 600 feet below the base of the hill. Some idea of the quantity of ore contained in the Mona mine may be formed from the result of two contracts for three months each, made in the year 1787, exclusively of other smaller contracts during the same period: from one of these were obtained, within that time, as many as 2931 tons of good copper-ore; and from the other, 488 tons.

Divers other ores have been discovered. A bed of yellowish greasy clay, varying from one to four yards in thickness, lying above the copper-ore, and not more than two feet below the surface, contains lead in the proportion of from six hundred to a thousand lb. per ton, each ton of metal yielding no less than fifty-seven ounces of silver. Mixed with this earth are frequently found portions of the colour of cinnabar, probably indicating the presence of sulphureous arsenic silver ores, or of quicksilver. On the temporary decline of the copper-trade, works for the smelting of the lead-ore were erected on a large scale; but, owing to the high price of coal, and the decreasing demand for lead, the undertaking was ultimately abandoned. The copper-ore is generally of the yellow kind, and contains pyrites, sulphur, and from four to five per cent. of copper. Some black ore has been raised, containing from fifteen to twenty per cent. of copper; and parts of the vein have produced fine specimens of native copper, adhering, in a foliated form, to the sides of the intervening rock, and probably once held in solution and precipitated by the ferruginous quality of the substance to which it adhered.

The ore, after being raised, is broken into small lumps, and separated as much as possible from the waste; it is then conveyed to kilns, differing in shape and dimensions, in which it is exposed for a period of nine or ten months to the action of a gentle fire, the sulphur being thus separated from the copper, which is afterwards sent to the smeltinghouses. The kilns contain in general from four to thirteen hundred tons of ore, and attached to them are chambers, into which the sulphur, instead of evaporating, is conducted by means of flues in order to be condensed: the walls of the kilns, generally about four or five feet in height, and of sufficient strength to bear the lateral pressure of the ore, vary in length in proportion to the quantity they are intended to contain. The ore is heaped up to the height of four or five feet above the walls, in a long convex pile, and closely covered with stones and other matter, luted with clay, to prevent evaporation. When it is once lighted, the ore continues to burn for the period assigned, during which the chamber is cleared out as may be required. The sulphur was formerly refined into cubes and cones, principally used in the manufacture of gunpowder and vitriolic acid, and into small rolls, which were chiefly sent to London, forming the stone brimstone exposed for sale in the shops: at present it is used, in the state of flour, for making sulphuric acid. Prior to the year 1784, the whole of the ore was calcined in open kilns on the top of the hill, the sulphureous vapour exhaling from which, being condensed in the atmosphere, shed a malignant influence on the soil, and converted several hundred acres of land adjoining into a barren waste, especially between the mountain and the sea. But since the fumes have been condensed in the chambers appropriated for their reception, this extensive area of land has assumed its former appearance of comparative fertility.

The ore in the mine abounds with sulphureous acid, which, uniting with the water, flows through the fissures of the vein, and combining with the copper, holds it in solution. The water, thus impregnated, is raised into reservoirs, or pits, ranged in regular series at different elevations, according to the declivity of the ground; and iron being put into it, the acid, having a stronger affinity to that metal, detaches itself from the copper, which is precipitated to the bottom in a congeries of small granulæ. In order to expedite the process of precipitation, the iron is frequently scraped, and a fresh surface is thus exposed to the action of the acid; but by this means certain portions of the decomposed iron mixing with the precipitated copper, the quality of the latter is impaired and rendered less valuable. The proportion of copper contained in the mass thus precipitated varies from five to twenty-five per cent.; but if wrought iron be used, and suffered to remain without scraping, till it is completely decomposed by the acid, it will precipitate nearly its own weight of sediment; and a ton of sediment thus precipitated will generally produce, when dried and smelted, about twelve hundred-weight of pure copper, which is more malleable and of a finer quality than that produced from the ore. After the precipitation has taken effect in the reservoirs of the upper series, the water is drawn off into those on the next lower level, and from those again into the next lower, till the principal parts of the copper held in solution have subsided. The copper is taken from the reservoirs in the form of mud, and when dried is sent to the smelting-houses. Formerly, after the mineral water had been drawn off into the last receptacle, the iron was extracted from its solution in the acid in the form of green vitriol, or copperas; but this plan not proving sufficiently profitable, it was abandoned for the manufacture of alum, which also not realizing the gains anticipated, was in its turn relinquished. At present, the only value of the sulphate of iron in the lower pits is derived from its depositing the oxide of iron, called yellow ochre, which is refined, dried, and shipped for the use of painters. The better sort of copper-ore was at one time smelted in furnaces in South Wales and Lancashire, and only the poorer at Amlwch; but the whole is now smelted at this place. The smelting-houses are upon a very extensive scale, and contain a vast number of reverberating furnaces, the chimneys of which are more than forty feet high: the furnaces are charged every four hours, with from eighteen to twenty hundred-weight of ore and slag, producing about half a hundred-weight of regulus, from which, by refinement, nearly one-half of pure metal is obtained.

The strikingly rugged and barren aspect of the Parys mountain was formerly rendered more wild by the immense heaps of burning ore that were piled up on various parts of its surface; and the noise of the workmen employed in breaking the masses of ore which had been detached from the mountain, and the reverberated roar of frequent explosions of gunpowder used in blasting the rock, added to the dismal scene an effect truly appalling. Numbers of the workmen might be observed at different elevations on the edges of tremendous precipices, drawing up the broken ore in baskets; while others, suspended by ropes about half-way down, were employed, apparently at the imminent hazard of their lives, in perforating the steep sides of the mountain, in which, after having secured a resting-place for their feet, they opened a wide chasm, by detaching large masses of ore, that fell with prodigious noise to the bottom.

Towards the close of the last century, when the Parys and Mona mines were very prosperous and in vigorous operation, their produce amounted to 30,000 tons of available ore annually, and 1500 men were employed in them; but when, about the year 1800, the works declined, and many of the workmen were obliged to seek employment in other places, not more than 600 tons were obtained. In the year 1829, 16,400 tons, and in 1830, 15,650 tons, of copper-ore, were produced from these works, which, in the several processes of mining, dressing, smelting, and refining, afford employment to more than 1500 persons. The Mona mine now belongs to the Marquess of Anglesey; and the Parys mine jointly to the Marquess, and Lord Dinorben. Breweries, flour-mills, paint-works, and works for preparing clay for china-ware, have been established; and alkali-works on an extensive scale have been formed by Mr. Hill, to whom a lease was granted by the proprietors of Parys mines, on the condition that he would consume their sulphur on the spot. Little or no trade is carried on, except such as is immediately connected with the mining operations and the works dependent on them.

The mineral produce is shipped at Amlwch, which is considered a creek to the port of Beaumaris, and the harbour of which has been much enlarged by the proprietors of the mines. In 1793 an act of parliament was obtained for the improvement of the port and the formation of a harbour, under the provisions of which a pier was erected, in 1814; and in 1822, a breakwater was constructed, by which means this has been rendered one of the most secure and commodious harbours on the coast of North Wales. There is a lighthouse with a steady light at the entrance to it. The harbour is accessible to vessels of 300 tons' burthen; and from thirty to forty vessels, of from 30 to 200 tons' burthen, are employed in conveying the mineral produce of the district to its several destinations, and in bringing the articles requisite for carrying on the extensive works here, and the supply of the inhabitants. The principal exports are copper, ochre, salt, and corn, and the chief imports coal, old iron to be used in the precipitation of copper, and shop goods of various kinds. At Amlwch is a literary and scientific institution under the patronage of the Marquess of Anglesey, supported by some of the most intelligent and influential classes in Anglesey and Carnarvonshire, in which lectures are delivered monthly, and to which mechanics are admitted members on an annual payment of two shillings. A customary market, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, is held weekly; and there are four fairs for the sale of cattle, on March 8th, May 4th, August 12th, and October 21st.

By the Act for "Amending the representation of the people in England and Wales," Amlwch was constituted a borough, in conjunction with Holyhead and Llangevni, contributory to Beaumaris, and sharing in the return of a member to parliament. The boundaries are minutely described in the Appendix. The right of election is vested in every male person of full age occupying, either as owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises of the annual value of not less than ten pounds, provided he be capable of registering as the act directs: the present number of houses worth ten pounds per annum and upwards is seventy-nine. The mayor of Beaumaris is the returning officer.

The parish comprises 9270 acres, of which 300 are waste or common land. It is divided into three parts, viz., Amlwch, Pwllcôch; Llechog, Bodynod, with Gorddwr; and Llawr-y-Llan; to which, in levying the county rate, the adjoining parishes of Bôdewryd and Gwredog are considered a fourth division. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1100 parliamentary grant; total net income, £230; patron, the Bishop of Bangor, who possesses the great tithes, which were appropriated in the reign of James I., and have been commuted for a rent-charge of £908. 14. 6., out of which the curate is allowed £80 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Elaeth, a spacious and handsome structure with a lofty square embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, was erected in 1800, at an expense of £2500, defrayed by the Earl of Uxbridge, the Rev. Edward Hughes, and Mr. Williams. In the parish were formerly two chapels of ease, both of which are now in ruins; one, four miles to the west of Amlwch, called LlanLleianau, or "the cell of the nuns," and the other about the same distance to the south, called St. Cadog. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, Baptists, and Independents.

Mrs. Eleanor Kynnier, in 1689, gave by deed £311, directing the interest to be appropriated to the payment of a master to teach poor children of the parish to read. A school was accordingly kept up till the year 1821, when a National school was established, and a building erected at an expense of £1200, defrayed by £300 accumulation of interest from the fund, and subscriptions by the miners and inhabitants. In aid of the annual subscriptions, the interest of Mrs. Kynnier's donation has, since that time, been applied; the total income is about £100. At this school, which is spacious and well constructed, about 140 boys and 100 girls are gratuitously taught. A Sunday school, in connexion with the Established Church, is attended by eighty boys and fifty girls; and a large number of persons, both children and adults, are instructed in sixteen Sunday schools belonging to the dissenters, by whom they are supported by subscriptions and collections made at their respective places of worship. A few donations and bequests by different benefactors, amounting in the aggregate to £36 per annum, are lost to the parish; but it is entitled to send one poor man to the almshouse at Bangor, under the will of Bishop Rowlands, the founder.

Near the extremity of the parish, bordering upon that of Llanbadrig, are the remains of the monastery of Llan-Lleianau, situated near the sea-shore, and consisting principally of some traces of the foundation, and ruins of sepulchral memorials scattered over the extensive cemetery. In 1841, as the workmen of Messrs. Parry and Jones were digging some ochre-pits contiguous, they discovered a gigantic skeleton, measuring the astonishing length of seven feet seven inches, and in perfect preservation. Not far from the same spot are the remains of a British fortress, called Dinas. The ancient well styled Fynnon Elaeth was formerly in high estimation for the efficacy of its waters in the cure of various diseases, and is still held in some degree of repute.

Limits of borough

Commencing at the point on the north-east of the town where the Rhyd Talog brook falls into the sea at Porth Aber Cawell, southward, along the boundary of the parish of Amlwch to the point called Croes Eilian; thence along the Plâs Dulas road to the point named Penllaethdy-Mawr; thence along the road to Pentre Velin, across the Llanerchymedd road, to the point designated Pentre Velin Adda cross roads; thence along a road towards Pary's farm to the point at which the same is met by the first bye road on the right leading to Bôdgadva farm; thence along the bye road, passing Bôdgadva farm, to the point at which the bye road is intersected (between Bôdgadva farm and a cottage styled Yr hên Odyn) by the Lastre brook; thence along the brook, crossing the Holyhead road, to the spot where the brook falls into the river termed Avon Park Llechog; thence along the Avon Park Llechog to a ford in the Cemmes road called Rhyd-carreg-cath; thence along the Cemmes road to the cottage named Bryn-y-Cyll, at which the road is met by the church pathway; thence along the pathway to the stile over a brook that divides the land of the Marquess of Anglesey from the Coed Helen and Llysdulas property, which stile is close by a spring designated Casyris; thence along the brook to the point at which the same is met by a boundary fence (a few yards north of a cottage styled Cae-Bâch) running in the direction of Mona mill; thence along the fence to the point at which the same cuts the Porth Llechog road; thence, towards Amlwch, along the road, to the place at which the same is met by the Fynnon-y-Garreg-Vawr pathway; thence along the pathway to the spring termed Fynnon-y-GarregVawr; thence along the stream that proceeds from the spring to the point at which the stream falls into the sea; thence along the sea to the point first noticed.